An alternative to spending the night in Roncesvalles for pilgrims arriving there too late in the evening to walk a full day, as the stretch between the two is 5km along mostly flat ground. Between here and Pamplona, you will notice many villages perched above the valley floor. This was to maximize both farmland (shared and more fertile near the river) and security.
The last Sunday in August.
The founding of Espinal, now an uninspiring town comprised mostly of modern chalets, was driven by the desire to keep pilgrims safe. This river valley has a long history of battle and banditry, and it was in the interest of the Navarran Kings (in this case Teobaldo II) to keep them safe. Several more villages along the way share a similar founding, and Teobaldo was not alone in improving the infrastructure of the camino. Indeed, several other Kings, Queens, Saints, and the current ruling party all share a common interest in the camino.